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Posts Tagged ‘competition

Be the best that you can be. That is what we urge our kids, right? But as they grow up, they learn through social interaction, societal pressure, and schooling that “best” is a result of competition.

Now competition itself is not bad. It can bring out the best in us. But it can also bring out the worst. One bad consequence is the focus on what others think or say.

Getting feedback by listening to or observing others is not a bad way to learn, but there can also be demoralising talk and bad models of behaviour. So the sooner a child learns to self-evaluate by critical and objective reflection, the sooner they gain confidence in their own abilities.

When compared to others, they might not be the best. But they learn to gauge what their current best is, look forward to improving, and celebrate both.

There are some videos that you watch on YouTube and there are others that are on Vimeo. Those in Vimeo tend to be in a class of their own.

A good example is this animation about two robots mining gems.

Video source

There is not a word uttered in the video, but the message is clear: Cooperation is constructive; competition can be destructive.

The same could apply in the context of schooling. There will be times when competition is important or even necessary, e.g., competitive sports, fund-raising, friendly rivalries.

But there are times when it is counterproductive, e.g., teachers not sharing resources or students not helping each other in order to stay ahead.

Unlike in the video, the impact of negative forms of competition are not always and immediately obvious. They fester and rot, and as they normalise, we say it is just part of our culture or defend it by saying there is nothing wrong with competition.

Competition is not always a good thing. If you cannot see that, then you need to let these two robots remind you why.

In Part 1 of my reflection on PSLE2021, I elaborated on why the move from norm-referenced testing (NRT) to criterion-referenced testing (CRT) was a fundamental shift. It could set the tone for the desired change from unhealthy competition and comparisons to a focus on individual achievement. To the latter end, PSLE2021 will have Achievement Levels (ALs) 1 to 8 instead of scores.

To claim that ALs will help students know where they stand is one thing. To say that ALs will help students focus learning is another.

TODAYonline claimed that the new system will “help children focus on learning instead of marks”. It mirrored the official message at MOE’s PSLE microsite.

The current PSLE does not help children focus on learning. The PSLE2021 with its ALs does not guarantee that either. This is because the:

  • PSLE is summative
  • Preparation for exams discourages it
  • Comparison and competition lead to stress
  • ALs are not actionable

Summative nature of PSLE
The ALs are part of summative assessment, which typically happens at the end of a course of study. Summative assessment is sometimes referred to as assessment of learning (AoL). The PSLE ALs should indicate what the student has learnt at the end of Primary school.

Summative assessments tend to focus on the products of learning, e.g., grades or ALs, instead of processes of learning.

The PSLE in its old or new form is like the quality control near the end of a production line. It rates the product of schooling (fail or pass; if pass, then how well) and determines where it goes next (to recycle or discard; to channel to which Secondary stream).

Exam preparation
With so much at stake, kids are drilled as the PSLE draws near. However, there is much to take in because an entire Primary schooling experience boils down to exam papers.

Students learn to game a system that is stacked against them. They learn shortcuts from their classrooms and tuition centres. Memorisation is key because it is the path of least resistance and learning is for the short term. The time-honoured strategy is GIGO — garbage in, garbage out.

Comparison, competition, stress
ALs will not stop comparison and competition. This is what creates the unnecessary PSLE stress.

At least two news agencies [1] [2] explored the effect of stress. One parent reportedly said that “students will not have to stress about having to outscore their peers under the new system”. I disagree.

Children are taught to compare by adults. They are conditioned in the classroom, home, and other social environments to do this. Students find out how their peers have done. Parents compare notes because they realise their children compete for limited places in their Secondary school of choice. As a result, students are told they can do better than themselves and someone else.

Enrichment tuition centres already take advantage the desire to compare and compete. The tuition industry will tweak its marketing messages and promise better ALs instead of better letter grades or scores.

ALs are not going to remove comparisons.

ALs are not going to stop enrichment tuition as the chase will be for AL1.

There is a simpler way to examine this issue. Some have remarked on the similarity of ALs to O-level grades [1] [2]. Is there less or no competition at the Singapore-Cambridge O-Level Examinations?

Reality bites and at least one parent put it plainly in this report:

Ms Deborah Giam, whose daughter is a student at Methodist Girls’ School, agreed it will be fairer to judge a student’s own performance but also felt the PSLE will “continue to be a source of stress”. “In the case of the T-score, a lot of it was out of people’s control … so all you can do is always push your kid to do the best that they can. With this new system, it’s still the same because … at end of the day, it’s still about how many points you score,” she said.

ALs are not actionable
The PSLE is taken at the end of a child’s Primary school experience. What difference can a student make if he or she has an AL4 in an academic subject? It is not as if there are any lessons of note after the examinations. The papers are not returned to students so that they can address what they have not mastered.

Short of retaking the PSLE, a student cannot try to get a better AL. The Secondary schools students are posted to are also not necessarily going to take note of the AL and remediate.

PSLE2021 Yoda.

The fictitious Master Yoda once said, “Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.”

If there was an Edu Yoda, he might say, “Summative assessment is the path to the Dark Side of PSLE2021. ALs lead to comparisons. Comparisons lead to competition. Competition leads to stress.”

There is a lot of noise amidst the signals of PSLE2021. Strip away the noise and you might detect the important signals.

One signal is the shift towards on standards or criteria of learning. The focus is the learner and the mastery of learning. The other is the fact that the design and implementation of PSLE2021 is still summative. The result of this is still quality control and sorting, and with it the socio-cultural baggage of comparing, competing, and unnecessary stress.

The two signals do not harmonise. One hints at a new tune, the other repeats an old refrain.

If I can keep my figurative noise-cancelling headphones on long enough, I will pick on a few more PSLE2021 notes in more reflections.

Read Part 3: Differentiation vs granularity.

Video source

When I watched yesterday’s Wongfu Weekend episode with my son, I told him this was a good instance of how cooperation is often better than competition.

Minecraft is a sandbox game that has no fixed rules. As a player, you decide what you want to do, and that is probably one of the major reasons why this game is so popular.

In the video, Phil and Wes (who are new to the game) are coached by Ted and David respectively.

Phil and Ted opted to take the more constructive route. Wes and David went on a destructive rampage. They eventually fought each other even as zombies, skeletons, and spiders attacked them both.

If they had cooperated, they would have survived the night. Because they competed, their game avatars died. That is a lesson in Minecraft you can take into life.

Finish/Start by I like, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic License  by  I like 

Lots and lots have been said about the quality of Finnish education. I admire what they do and how they do it. I do not envy those who want to try to replicate or borrow ideas for implementation.

I am not going to add much to that conversation either. But I will point out what one Finnish educator said at Mind/Shift:

“You know, one big difference in thinking about education and the whole discourse is that in the U.S. it’s based on a belief in competition,” Sahlberg said. “In my country, we are in education because we believe in cooperation and sharing. Cooperation is a core starting point for growth.”

I think that value system is what allows the Finnish to “finish” first in education. But because they are not in competition with anyone else (except perhaps themselves), they do not ever finish.

What do our teachers and educators believe in?


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